You Can’t Judge an Iranian Woman by Her Cover

Mon, Feb 12, 2007


Diane Sawyer Discovers Women’s Rights in Iran Are More Complicated Than Many in West Believe

ABC News “Good Morning America” / By Diane Sawyer

Women in Iran are allowed to vote at the age of 15. They hold 4 percent of the seats in Parliament, and more than half the university students are women.

Women make up more than 30 percent of Iran’s work force.

“There is no hindrances as far as I am concerned for any woman to do anything she wants as long as she is capable of doing it,” said an Iranian woman, Goli Emami, a book publisher.

Yet Westerners are fixated on the law that requires every woman, including foreigners, to wear a hijab, or head scarf, in public.

In the streets, women also cover up to the knees, though the hemlines vary, creeping higher in the city.

Every single woman said it was a tradition they didn’t mind.

One young woman said it made her feel safe, confident and modest.

Under the Hijab

The tradition stretches back centuries through Muslim and Judeo-Christian religions. The Bible says women should cover their heads.

Yet if you’ve read Azar Nafisi’s novel “Reading Lolita in Tehran,” you know that beneath those veils women wear painted fingernails, dyed hair and Western-style clothes. In store windows, you can find the latest fashions, even racy lingerie.

“People … in the West being fed this media crap think that we are imprisoned, we are not allowed to leave the house, we have to cover ourselves, only our eyes should be out. We are not allowed to go anywhere — you know, wrong pictures,” Emami said.

Make no mistake, though, strong as they are, Iranian women have a battle to wage.

Human rights groups say, that especially in the countryside, a woman can be publicly stoned to death if she is thought to be unfaithful to her husband.

“A woman is half of a man. Women cannot have guardianship of her children. A women does not have right to divorce equal to men. A woman cannot leave the country without permission of her husband — all of these and many, many others,” said Mahnaz Afkhami, president of the Women’s Learning Partnership and Foundation.

Parisa, 29, belongs to an underground activist group in Tehran. She is going door to door and to cafes, collecting 1 million signatures for women’s rights.

“They are so very modern and so very connected to the rest of the world and so anxious for rights and so conscious of the importance of achieving those rights, and the two are just worlds apart, what they have and what they wish for,” Afkhami said.

One thing is certain in Iran: You cannot judge a woman here by her cover. In the bazaar, a woman dressed in full chador, a large, square cloth worn as a shawl, spoke English and said she had traveled to New Jersey.

She said she preferred Iran to New Jersey because television was much more wholesome for children in Iran.

In Tehran, a complicated city of about 12 million people, where women run businesses, the truth of a culture does not travel a straight line, especially the truth as the West sees it, some Iranians say.

“Please by all means come to Iran and stay here for a while, and learn for yourself how it is,” Emami said.

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About Mahnaz Afkhami

A lifetime advocate for the rights of women, Mahnaz Afkhami works with activists across the world, especially in Muslim majority societies, to help women become leaders. She is Founder and President of Women’s Learning Partnership for Rights, Development, and Peace (WLP), Executive Director of Foundation for Iranian Studies...more

Quotables – Human Rights

"We must pose the question: why is it that the denial of the most rudimentary rights to civil treatment for women is always based on some fundamental point of culture? Is this culture real, or is it a fetish that is used to maintain some economic, social, or simply psychological privilege?" - A Vision of Gender in Culture

"Women's status in society has become the standard by which humanity's progress toward civility and peace can be measured." - Architects for Peace

"The crass infringement of women's rights we see in the Muslim world has more to do with power, patriarchy, and misuse of religion as political weapon than with religion properly understood as individual faith." - Gender Apartheid, Cultural Relativism, and Women's Human Rights

"Rights and empowerment are interconnected: unless a substantial number of women in a community come to believe that they have rights and demand to exercise them, right remains an abstraction." - Faith and Freedom

Quotables – Iran Women’s Movement

"Now, when I look back [on the work of the WOI], it seems to me that our main mistake was not that we did not do other things which we should have done. Our main mistake was that we created conditions in which the contradictions related to modernity, progress, equality, and human rights, especially women’s rights, increased and the reaction to our work put perhaps too much pressure on the country’s social fabric." - Fate of the family protection law

"Iran’s One Million Signatures Campaign for the Reform of Discriminatory Laws is an extraordinary phenomenon. It is democratic, nonhierarchical, open, and evolving in a polity that is none of those things." - Iranian Women’s One Million Signatures Campaign for Equality: The Inside Story, Foreword

At the time of her execution, [Ms. Parsay] wrote one of the most moving letters to her children. And in that she expressed the same courage and the same steadfast belief in her principles that she had followed all of her life. And that was that: I’m a doctor. I know what it means to die, that takes only a minute. I’m not afraid of that. What I’m afraid of is to be pressured into denying 50 years of service to women. - Executed But Not Forgotten

“Prostitution was the code word for activism during the early part of the revolution” - I Was Iran's Last Woman Minister